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Gastroenterology Archives

Gastroenterology refers to the function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Below, you'll find a sampling of articles authored by Michelle Pugle on the topic of gastroenterology.


Abnormal muscle spasms in the esophagus are called esophageal spasms. In this article, you'll learn more about what is an esophageal spasm and what symptoms are associated with esophageal spasm, along with possible causes of esophageal spasm and treatment options. Read more in Verywell.


A nervous stomach is a common problem that can be caused by emotional challenges such as anxiety and depression or by digestive disorders. It may include symptoms such as feeling "butterflies" in your stomach or experiencing a "gut-wrenching" feelingThis article will explain common symptoms of nervous stomach, what causes it, and when to see a healthcare provider. Read more in Verywell.


Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal issue and results in 2.5 million healthcare provider visits annually. This article will cover in detail what causes constipation, the symptoms of constipation, what to expect if you have constipation, how diagnosis for constipation works, and what treatments exist for constipation. You’ll also learn what to expect if you have constipation during pregnancy, and how to prevent constipation, as well as when to see a healthcare provider for constipation. Read more in Verywell.


Liver disease refers to a range of diseases that can cause dysfunction and damage to the liver. In this article, you can learn more about the causes of itching associated with liver disease, the symptoms to watch for, ways to find relief, and when to see a healthcare provider. Read more in Verywell.


Liver flukes are parasitic worms that cause liver, gallbladder, and bile duct infections in humans. Whether you're likely to get a liver fluke infection depends on where you live, what you eat, and if you travel to areas where these parasites are present. This article will describe the types of liver flukes along with liver fluke complications and overall prognosis for liver fluke. Read more in Verywell.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic and common condition where stomach acid flows back into the mouth through the esophagus. This can cause symptoms such as heartburn or acid indigestion, trouble swallowing, and the feeling of food being trapped or stuck in the esophagus. Certain risk factors and conditions can worsen GERD. Fortunately, GERD is manageable and treatable.


This article details what you need to know about symptoms of GERD, what causes GERD, which specific conditions can worsen GERD, how to go about getting a diagnosis for GERD, and what treatments for GERD are available. You’ll also learn when GERD causes complications, and when to see a healthcare provider for GERD. Read more in Verywell.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or chronic acid reflux is a common condition affecting around 20% of the U.S. population. Acid reflux every now and then, especially after a particularly large meal, is normal. Chronic GERD is acid reflux that occurs twice a week or more for several weeks. If you find yourself taking antacids frequently after eating, you may have GERD.


This article will detail what you need to know about GERD, including who gets it, the risks of having it, and how prevention and screening for GERD works. You’ll learn complications of GERD and when to see a healthcare provider. Read more in Verywell.


If you have symptoms of acid reflux, you may be able to manage it with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. However, some cases of acid reflux require prescription or other remedies. Read more in Verywell.


Chronic acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux (GER), may be a sign of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is an acetic acid with other substances, such as lactic, citric, and malic acids, as well as bacteria. People add it to their diets because some believe that not enough acid can signal your brain to relax the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) valve. Read more in Verywell.


Acid reflux occurs when your stomach contents, mostly digestive juices, backflow into your esophagus or throat. One common symptom is a sore throat. This article covers why GERD can make your throat sore, treatments that can help with symptoms, and when to see your healthcare provider. Read more in Verywell.


Gallbladder disease is any condition affecting the health of the gallbladder (ie., the digestive sac located under your liver). It is most commonly associated with gallstones. In this article, you’ll learn more about who gets gallbladder disease and why, when to see a healthcare provider, and the benefits of early screening for gallbladder disease. Read more in Verywell.

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